Site map

Site update log

About this site

Contact info



GENERAL INFO is a reader-supported independent publication, not affiliated with any government or private institution. First developed in mid-1990s, this site is one of the oldest space-related portals on the web. It is unmatched in its level of detail and visual content by any other publication in the world. In many respects, has been the online face of the Russian space program and one of the few independent voices consistently tracking the Russian space industry for the past two decades.

If you would like to support, please visit this page for secure and easy way to make your contribution via PayPal. For advertising information, visit this page or contact the publisher for special deals.



Anatoly Zak - Creator and publisher

Alain Chabot - Senior editor

Igor Rozenberg - Senior researcher

George Chambers - Researcher

Christian Cognard - Contributing editor

Michel Clarisse - - Contributing editor

Claude Mourier - Researcher and photographer

If you would like to contribute writing, reporting, research, marketing, web design or work on any other aspects of this site, please send us an e-mail at:



The publisher would like to thank our long-term donors for their support of this project spanning several decades:

Jonathan McDowell, Robert McClimon, Zaven Matevosian, Viktor Lapinskii and Christian Cognard... well as many other individuals around the world for their generous donations:

  • Nicholas Abadzis
  • Vadym Aizinger
  • David Anderman
  • Christoffer Araskog
  • Daniel Armstrong
  • Hubert Bartkowiak
  • Thomas Barton
  • Jeffrey Bell
  • John Bensted (Our long-term supporter)
  • Arturas Berezniakovas
  • Richard Bird
  • Glen Blankenship (Our 2017 supporter)
  • Felix Bogar
  • A. Bolourian
  • Ivan Borsenco (Our 2017 supporter)
  • Peter Burinskas (Our 2017 supporter)
  • Joel Carpenter
  • Craig Cholar
  • Dave Cooper
  • Martin Cutbill
  • George Damorakis
  • Mitch Davis
  • Tish Doolin
  • Eugene Dorr
  • Arthur Dula
  • Paul Duncan
  • Charles Durrett
  • Stefan Eich
  • Paul Feigelman
  • Howard Fink
  • Richard Flagg
  • Matthew Flammer
  • Matteo Galiazzo
  • Georges Garbarino
  • Joaquin Fernando Gathmann Meck
  • Andreas Gerster (Our long-term supporter)
  • Robert Godfrey
  • Boris Gonzales
  • Ludwig Grunwaldt
  • Angiolo Miguel Huaman Gutierrez (Our 2017 supporter)
  • Paul Gye
  • Tamas Hadarits
  • Douglas Hainline
  • John Hale (Our 2018 supporter)
  • Eric Hinckley
  • Gennady Imeshev
  • Yakub Issa (Our 2017 supporter)
  • Mark Johns
  • Chris Jones
  • Nedeljko Kacavenda
  • Charles William Kauffman
  • Edward Kelleher Jr.
  • Mourad Khettal (Our 2017 supporter)
  • Vladislav Khlestov
  • Andrew Klawitter
  • Erkka Koski
  • Anastasios Kourtesis
  • Manish Kumar
  • Aaron Lawrence (Our 2017 supporter)
  • Andrej Lazo
  • Bryan Linsley
  • Georgy Lominadze
  • James Lucas
  • Karsten May
  • Juan Carlos Cisneros Martínez
  • Matthew McGregor
  • Jason McGuiness
  • Robert Meegan
  • Leigh Mellor
  • Mark Meredith
  • Raiko Milanovic
  • Duncan Milligan (Our 2017 supporter)
  • Philip Mills (Our long-term supporter)
  • Don Mitchell
  • Matthew Mlodzienski (Our 2017 supporter)
  • Juan Negrin
  • Michael Nemeth
  • Mag-I'M Neubauerii (Our long-term supporter)
  • Robert Oklejas
  • Miroslav Pavlicko
  • Naton Pierre
  • Serge Pomorski
  • Robert Potthast
  • Jon Preston (Our long-term supporter)
  • Hal Preston
  • Turlough Rafferty
  • Gene Ragan
  • Nicolas Renne
  • Geoffrey Richards
  • William Rierden
  • Donald Robertson
  • Jorge C Rodriguez
  • Carmine Rossi (Our long-term supporter)
  • John Ruth
  • John Ryan
  • Karine Saiadian
  • Ondrej Samarek (Our long-term supporter)
  • Nick Sheppard (Our long-term supporter)
  • Peter Schramm
  • Ian Sharp
  • Derek Siver
  • Daniel Smith
  • Justin Somerset
  • Andrea Staargaard (Our long-term supporter)
  • Louie Stowell
  • Joshua Stubbles
  • Erik Sudland
  • Richard J Susoeff
  • Jose Hrnandez y Tapia
  • Kazuo Terakado
  • Stefan Thieme (Our 2018 supporter)
  • Percy Tierney
  • Kai Vilonen
  • Arne Visscher
  • Stephen Voss (Our long-term supporter)
  • Daniel Waltimire (Our 2017 supporter)
  • Eugene Wan
  • Joseph Wenderoth
  • Stephen L. West
  • Tyler West
  • Colin F. Wilson
  • Bill Wood
  • Andi Wuestner
  • Ivan Yanachkov
  • Richard Zajicek
  • Gregory Zsidisin
  • Erin Zolotukhin-Ridgway
  • David Zusiman




Writing and news reporting

3D animation, computer graphics, photography, video, web design, informational and interactive graphics, page layout and book packaging;

Consulting on space history and latest developments in the field;

Translating and interpreting between Russian and English;

Advice related to the Russian space industry;

Fees and conditions are project-based and can be negotiated on individual basis.


The entire content of this publication is protected by copyright law and no material from the site can be copied or reproduced without written permission from the publisher. Periodic e-mail notifications from, postings on social media sites, such as Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn, do not imply permission for the reproduction of content. Citing as a source does not clear publishers from responsibility to obtain a written permission from the editor of for reproduction of any materials from this web site.

If you are interested in purchasing photography, informational graphics or written content from the site or would like to order unpublished imagery from the extensive archive which serves as a source for this site, please e-mail your inquiry to Anatoly Zak at:

This web site features only small fraction of visuals and other documents available in the archive.

Please note that the editor makes his best effort to answer as many questions as possible however due to limited time and resources there is no guarantee of a reply to every inquiry. Unfortunately, we can not provide photos, graphics or substantial amount of research free of charge.



Readers are allowed to quote articles from on other forums and web sites as long as citations are limited to:

  • a single headline from a page;
  • a single lead paragraph from a page;
  • a single illustration from a page not exceeding 200 pixels in width (found on the right side of each page)

Do not copy or reproduce main images at the top of the page or images from "click to enlarge" windows;

Always provide a live HTML link back to the original page on;

Do not copy entire articles to other web sites or forums.