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The Russian space industry entered 2015 in a midst of a deepening economic recession, forcing the Kremlin to make a 10-percent cut in the nation's space budget. The government also fired the third head of Roskosmos in four years and launched another major restructuring of the agency. At the end of January, the newly appointed chief of the newly created Roskosmos State Corporation Igor Komarov said that despite worsening economic situation, an effort would be made to preserve all key projects and limit the effect from funding cuts only to schedules. According to Russian military officials, Russia operated more than 120 spacecraft in orbit as of 2015.
The world's orbital launch attempts in 2015 (as of July 28, 2015 ):
The 2015 space launch score card (as of July 28, 2015 ):
Aug. 28: A Proton rocket to launch Inmarsat-5 F3 satellite from Baikonur. (As of December 2014, the launch was expected at the end of May 2015, however it had to be postponed in the wake of the MexSat-1 failure.)
Postponed from end of July - beginning of August: A Proton rocket to launch Ekspress-AM8 communications satellite for Russian Satellite Communications Company, RSCC. The mission was initially expected in the third quarter of 2013, but around August 2013, it was postponed until 2014. By the end of 2014, the launch was scheduled for March 30, but at the beginning of 2015, it slipped to April 6. The satellite was delivered to Baikonur on March 2, 2015, in preparation for launch on April 6, 2015.
Postponed from June: A Proton rocket to launch Turksat-4B communications satellite from Baikonur. The 3800-kilogram satellite was to be built by Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, MELCO, of Tokyo, Japan, based on the company's standard DS2000 comsat platform. The design life of 15-year on orbit service of the satellites will provide telecommunication and direct TV broadcasting services throughout Turkey, as well as in Europe, Central Asia, the Middle East and Africa. Turksat 4B will be operated at 50 degrees east position. The agreement for the launch was announced on April 5, 2011. In February 2014, the launch of Turksat-4B was planned in November. By December 2014, the mission was postponed until June 2015.
Postponed from July or August: A Proton rocket to launch the Eutelsat-9B communications satellite from Baikonur. The mission was previously planned in the second quarter of 2015. Eutelsat-9B, weighing 5,300 kilograms, is a high-capacity Ku-band satellite being built by Space Systems of Airbus Defence and Space (formerly Astrium). Based on a Eurostar E3000 platform, its 66 transponders will deliver to Eutelsat fresh resources and enhanced performance for broadcasting at the established 9 degrees East location via multiple service areas over Europe. Eutelsat-9B will also host the first data relay payload for the European Data Relay Satellite System (EDRS) being implemented through a Public-Private Partnership (PPP) between Space Systems and ESA. The EDRS system of telecommunication satellites in geostationary orbit will enable very high data rate, bi-directional data relay communications between Low Earth Orbit Earth observation satellites and an associated ground segment. The International Launch Services, ILS, the company that markets launches of the Proton rocket to commercial customers outside Russia, announced the agreement for this launch on Jan. 15, 2014.
Nov. 21: A Soyuz-2-1a rocket to launch Progress MS-1 (No. 431) from Baikonur to the ISS. (This mission was previously promised in 2014. In November 2014, the launch was planned for October 26, 2015. The mission was rescheduled for November 21 after the loss of Progress M-27M.)
December: A Soyuz-2-1b/Fregat rocket to launch the Meteor-M No. 2-1 remote-sensing satellite, along with a cluster of secondary payloads, including Ionosfera-1, Ionosfera-2, Flying Laptop, Flock 2, Scout, AISSat-3, Perseus-O1, Perseus-O2.
December: A Soyuz-2.1v rocket with a Volga upper stage to launch the 500-kilogram Mikhailo Lomonosov satellite, as its primary payload, along with Aist-2D and Kontakt-Nanosputnik small satellites from Site 1 in Vostochny. As of May 2012, the launch was expected around April or May 2013 from Plesetsk, with the delivery of Moscow University's instruments to a prime manufacturer, VNIIEM, by the end of August 2012. The mission was then promised in April or May 2014, until it was moved to Vostochny.
October or November: A Proton rocket to launch Intelsat DLA-2, also known as Intelsat-31, from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, utilizing the vehicle’s Phase IV performance capability. As of beginning of 2014, a high power satellite, Intelsat DLA-2 was under construction by SSL of Palo Alto, California, based on the flight proven 1300 platform. The 6-ton satellite will provide in orbit protection services for the DIRECTV Latin America Direct-to-Home (DTH) television platform, a leading DTH digital television services operator in Latin America. This will be the 11th Proton mission carrying Intelsat spacecraft and the 5th launch to support DIRECTV. The agreement for the launch announced by the International Launch Services, ILS, on Jan. 14, 2014, was the first launch assignment from Intelsat for one of two missions that the organization preliminary booked on Proton in March 2013. As of end 2014, the mission was expected at the end of 2015.
End of 2015: A Soyuz-2.1b rocket to launch the 2,100-kilogram Arktika-M No. 1 remote-sensing satellite into a highly elliptical 12-hour orbit (perigee: 800-2,500 kilometers, inclination: 62.8-63.5 degrees) from Baikonur. The constellation is designed to monitor high-altitude areas of the Earth. The spacecraft is to be based on the Elektro weather-forecasting satellite. In 2008, the first pair of Arktika-M satellites was expected to fly in 2013. (299), but by December 2010, the mission slipped to 2014. (442) By 2012, the first launch was promised in 2015 and the second in 2016.
2015: Soyuz rocket to launch the Foton-M No. 5 spacecraft. The spacecraft is expected to be equipped with solar panels, modified service module, and the new liquid-propellant orbit correction engine. The orbital lifespan of the satellite to be launched into the 400-450-kilometer orbit was expected to increase to 60 days. (As of April 2009)
Around 2015: Russia to launch Kosmos-SKh satellite to monitor agricultural development from space.
2015: A Soyuz-2.1b rocket to launch the Arktika-R No. 1 satellite into the polar orbit for radar observations of the polar areas. Originally a pair of Arktika-R satellites was planned for launch in 2014, by the end of 2010, the introduction of the system slipped to 2015. (442) By 2012, the second Arktika-R satellite was postponed to 2016.
2015: Russia to launch the Kartograf-OE No. 2 remote-sensing satellite.
End of 2015: Russia to launch Elektro-VO No. 1 satellite. (As of 2012.)
Delayed from fourth quarter of 2014: A Zenit-3SLB/Fregat-SB to launch a Ukrainian Lybid satellite from Baikonur. (As of April 2012. When first announced in 2006, the mission was promised to take place in 2010 and was later expected in September 2011. In April 2010, the launch was promised in April 2012. It was then delayed to the fourth quarter of 2013. In August 2014, Ukrainian space agency said that the spacecraft would be ready for launch in the fourth quater of that year).
2015: Soyuz-2-1b/Fregat-SB rocket to launch the Arkon-2M No. 1 remote-sensing satellites for all-weather radar observations of the Earth surface from a 550-600-kilometer Sun-synchronous orbit. The launch was originally promised in 2009 (299) and later in 2012-2013. In 2010, a pair of spacecraft was scheduled for launch in 2013, however by 2012, the first Arkon-2M was expected to fly in 2015 and the second in 2016. The Arkon-2M program was canceled by November 2012 to free funds for Arktika, Resurs and Obzor projects.
2014-2015: Russia to launch a solar telescope -- Koronas-4-Monitor -- to replace a failed Koronas-Foton spacecraft. (A February 2010 proposal from Astrophysics Institute at the National Nuclear Research University.) By the end of March 2010, a project to replace Koronas-Foton was identified as Solaris by the Solar System division within Space Council of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The division recommended Lebedev Physics Institute, FIAN, as a main developer of the satellite's payload. The issue of the spacecraft bus remained open at the time, with NPO Lavochkin's yet-to-be-flown Navigator platform as one of the contenders. Unlike Koronas-Foton, the new telescope was expected to be narrowly specialized in solar observations and it was to be inserted into very high orbit to minimize the shadow from Earth and the influence of the planet's radiation belt. As of April 2010, the project was yet to be approved for the inclusion into the Russian space program or to receive any funding.
2015: Russia to launch MKA FKI No. 5 ARKA orbital solar observatory. (Canceled in March 2014)
During the 2010s, four annual missions of the Soyuz spacecraft had to be conducted every year to rotate crews onboard the International Space Station, ISS. In order to fly additional commercial passengers, the so-called "fifth" or "tourist" Soyuz would be needed during each particular year.
"Tourist" Soyuz promised but continuously delayed
Published: 2008 June 12; updated: June 20, July 2; 2009 Jan. 23, May 30; 2010 June 22; 2011 Aug. 26; 2012 Aug. 27
In 2008, the head of Russian space agency first flatly denied an announcement by US businessmen about the possibility of another tourist mission to the ISS.
On June 11, 2008, a private contractor selling seats onboard the Russian Soyuz spacecraft claimed that it would finance a dedicated tourist mission to the International Space Station, ISS, in 2011. The Soyuz flight, carrying one professional cosmonaut and two paid tourists, would be conducted in addition to regular launches financed by the Russian government. In the past, Russian authorities only allowed tourists to take a single seat onboard taxpayers' paid missions, to offset the cost of the cash-strapped Russian space program. However with the station construction nearly completed and its long-duration crew scheduled to increase from three to six, the regular Soyuz missions would have no seats available for paid passengers.
Although popular Western press hailed the latest claims about the dedicated tourist space mission as a new breakthrough in orbital commerce, the head of the Russian space agency, Roskosmos, Anatoly Perminov said he had no information on such plans. In the official statement published on the agency's web site, Perminov said that "there is simply no seats for space tourists." Possibly, he referred to already scheduled missions, rather than a dedicated commercial flight. As of June 12, RKK Energia, a Russian company, which builds and operates the Soyuz spacecraft, neither confirmed or denied claims made by its US-based salesmen. At the very least, the situation indicated a breakdown of communications between the Russian space agency, its main contractor and its overseas sales representatives.
Even if such mission does take place, skeptics believe that "private investors" would still use Russian taxpayers' money to pay for the full infrastructure of the manned space flight, including the spacecraft, its rocket booster, the network of ground control stations and other services. Observers also point out a potential minefield "commercial" missions present for relations between space station partners. Even though Russia does not publicly disclose amounts it charges its private clients for joy rides in space, these rates are apparently lower than those paid by NASA and other space station partners for transporting their crew members to the ISS.
In 2011, Russia plans to conduct four manned missions of the Soyuz spacecraft to the ISS to support permanent occupation of the outpost by rotating international crews. The additional tourist mission would mean five manned launches that year. Currently, Russia conducts two manned missions annually, however in 1980, six piloted Soyuz spacecraft lifted off to support Salyut-6 orbital station.
Commenting on the situation, Yuri Makushenko, Director of Business Development at RKK Energia told RussianSpaceWeb.com that "the door to the fifth (additional) Soyuz launch in 2011 or 2012 is not closed provided necessary funding." Makushenko said that such option was evaluated at RKK Energia, however the project was at the very initial stage and no actual production work on the Soyuz ship for the fifth mission in 2011 had taken place. He explained the contradictory statements by Roskosmos as a possible misunderstanding.
Only on July 2, 2008, Roskosmos finally confirmed that an agreement with an unnamed private investor had been reached to start funding the construction of a dedicated spacecraft for a possible tourist mission in 2011. Terms of the agreement with the investor envisioned further tourists flights beyond 2011, the agency said. However in the January 2009 interview, (321) head of Roskosmos Anatoly Perminov, yet again, reiterated that Russian "tourist missions" to the ISS would end in 2009. And yet again, Perminov failed to mention any dedicated private Soyuz missions.
At the May 29, 2009, press-conference at the mission control in Korolev, the head of manned space flight of Roskosmos Aleksei Krasnov said that the construction of the "fifth" Soyuz spacecraft to be launched during a single year, in addition to four scheduled ships for the ISS program, was still under consideration, however it could take place in 2013, as the earliest. In June 2010, Krasnov elaborated that the first funding for the construction of the "fifth" ship would be advanced to RKK Energia before the end of the year. He mentioned commercial missions ordered by the Canadian space agency, as one of the potential customers of the additional spacecraft. In April 2011, Perminov confirmed that the "fifth" annual Soyuz could fly for the first time in 2013, adding that Russia could launch five manned missions once every two-three years. However behind the scene Roskosmos officials said that they had been unwilling to spend any federal money on the production of the "tourist" Soyuz and private investors had yet to fund the mission. Still in August 2011, the head of RKK Energia, Vitaly Lopota, told the Interfax new agency that the production of the "fifth" Soyuz had been in the initial stage and it could conduct a tourist mission in 2014. However in August 2012, Lopota said that only if the approval and funding for the mission was granted before the end of the year, the tourist flight could take place at the end of 2015.
This page is compiled by Anatoly Zak
Last update: July 28, 2015
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Kosmos-SKh satellite. Copyright © 2011 Anatoly Zak
The Arktika satellite could be based on the Elektro weather-forecasting satellite. Credit: Roskosmos
As of 2014, a Pion-NKS spacecraft for radar and radio surveillance was promised to enter orbit in 2015. Credit: Arsenal