A Soyuz/Fregat rocket shortly after installation on the launch pad on Feb. 18, 2019. Click to enlarge. Credit: RKK Energia
Soyuz MS-12 lifts off on March 14. Click to enlarge. Credit: NASA
Russian space activities in 2019
At the beginning of the year, the official Russian media promised 45 launches of rockets and missiles built by the Russian industry within the Roskosmos State Corporation in 2019. They included 32 orbital launch attempts with spacecraft. However, these numbers did not included test firings of submarine-based missiles. Around five or six military orbital launches were promised from Plesetsk and as many as 19 from Baikonur. In November 2018, the Russian emergency agency, MChS, also promised launches of six remote-sensing satellites, inclduing radar-carrying spacecraft before the end of 2019. The Ministry of Defense also promised during 2019 to deploy 31 Yars and Avangard launchers, four Tu-95 cruise-missile-carrying aircraft and the Knyaz Vladimir submarine with Bulava missiles.
Russian orbital assets as of April 2019, according to Roskosmos. There is no indepedent confirmation for operational status of some satellites.
The world's orbital launch attempts in 2019 (as of May 18, 2019 ):
The 2019 space launch score card (as of May 18, 2019 ):
Planned Russian orbital launch attempts:
May 27: A Soyuz-2-1b/Fregat-M rocket to launch the GLONASS-M No. 58 navigation satellite from Plesetsk. The spacecraft arrived at Plesetsk on April 13, Roskosmos said. In April, the launch was postponed from May 13 to May 27.
May 29-30: around midnight Moscow Time: A Proton-M rocket to launch the Yamal-601 satellite for Gazprom Space Systems, a division of the largest Russian oil and natural gas producer, from Pad 39 at Site 200. According to original deal struck in 2014, the Yamal-601 satellite, weighing over 5,700 kilograms, was to be built by Thales Alenia Space on the flight proven Spacebus-4000 platform. The mission marked the second Russian company switching from domestic communications satellite developers to foreign suppliers. Previously, Russian Satellite Communications Company, RSCC, also gave contracts to non-Russian satellite producers.
However after the events in Crimea later that year, the contract was re-written to base the project on the platform developed at ISS Reshetnev in Russia, while leaving the communications payload to be supplied by Thales.
The satellite will be launched into geostationary transfer orbit and has an anticipated service lifetime of 15 years. Yamal-601 satellite will replace Yamal-202 and will provide fixed communications and transmission services in C-band over Europe, the Middle East, Northern Africa and South-East Asia from the orbital position at 49 degrees East longitude. This satellite is also designed for development of business in Ku- and Ka-bands in the Russian market.
The International Launch Services, ILS, a US-based company that markets the Proton rocket to commercial customers, announced the contract for the launch of Yamal-601 on Jan. 22, 2014, promising the launch in February 2016.
In July 2016, Moscow-based Sberbank provided Gazprom with five lines of credit totaling 22 billion rubles for the development of the Yamal-601 satellite, its ground infrastructure, its launch and insurance.
By April 2017, the mission slipped to the end of 2018. The launch date was confirmed in September 2017.
On April 6, 2018, RIA Novosti quoted head of Gazprom KS Nikolai Sevastyanov promising the launch in January 2019. By July 2018, the launch was re-scheduled for February 2019, but before the end of the year, the launch had to be postponed until April or May 2019 and in the first months of 2019, it slipped to the beginning of June. The rocket for the mission was shipped from the manufacturing plant in Moscow to Baikonur on the evening of April 11 At the time, the launch was expected between May 29 and 30. The rocket reached the launch site in Kazakhstan on April 24, and the spacecraft landed in Baikonur aboard the An-124 transport aircraft on the morning of April 27.
During the second week of May, an international team of specialists conducted fit tests of the payload adapter interfacing with the Briz-M stage. According to Roskosmos, the tests confirmed mechanical and electric compatibility of the adapter and the spacecraft. Also, high pressure tanks of the Briz-M were filled with pressurized gases. The Proton-M rocket for the mission was assembled, went through pneumatic tests and was being prepared for electric tests, Roskosmos said on May 15. According to the State Corporation, the fueling of the Yamal-601 spacecraft was completed on May 14 and, after final electric tests, the spacecraft was delivered to the payload section assembly area, where the assembly of the upper composite started on May 17. During the operation, the satellite was connected to the payload adapter and the resulting assembly was then integrated with the upper stage, followed by electric checks of the assembly. Next, the stack would be covered with two sections of the payload fairing to form the upper composite to be integrated with the booster stages of the rocket.
June 21: A Proton-M/Block-DM-03 rocket to launch the Spektr-RG X-ray observatory. (As of April-June 2014, the launch was postponed from March 26, 2016, to 2017. By the end of 2015, the launch was planned for Sept. 25, 2017.).
July 5: A Soyuz-2-1b/Fregat rocket to launch Meteor-M No. 2-2 meteorological satellite and a cluster of secondary payloads, including AMICalSat (Aurora), ATISE, a trio of GOS/NIIYaF satellites and 11 micro-satellites from Vostochny.
The Soyuz-2-1b rocket for the mission arrived at Vostochny on June 18, 2018, and its launch was originally planned for Dec. 6, 2018, and the first quarter of 2019. By October 2018, the mission was postponed until April 2019, at the earliest and by the end of 2018, it slipped to the end of June or beginning of July 2019.
On April 22, Chief Designer's Council responsible for the mission met at RKTs Progress in Samara to review preparations for the launch. Deputy Designer General at RKTs Progress S.A. Volkov reported readiness of the company to begin launch campaign operations with the launch vehicle on May 20. By the end of April, the mission was reported to be delayed from June 27 to July 5.
The Fregat upper stage for the mission arrived at Vostochny and was unloaded at the storage facility of the center on May 14 and was scheduled to be delivered to the spacecraft processing complex the next day for installation in its work site for tests. At the time, Roskosmos said that the delivery of the Meteor-M2-2 satellite to Vostochny had been expected soon.
The Fregat upper stage for the Meteor-M2-2 launch arrives at the storage area in Vostochny on May 15, 2019.
July 16, 00:37 Moscow Time: A Proton-M rocket to launch the Blagovest No. 14L communications satellite for the Russian Ministry of Defense. As of August 2018, the launch was expected in the first quarter of 2019, but by the end of 2018, the mission slipped to May or June 2019. The launch on May 17 was initially targeted but by the end of March 2019, it was postponed until a period between May 24 and 25. By the middle of April, the mission was postponed to July.
July 20: A Soyuz-FG rocket to launch a Soyuz MS-13 (No. 746) manned transport spacecraft from Baikonur toward the International Space Station, ISS. The crew will include the Russian cosmonaut Aleksandr Skvortsov, a European astronaut Luca Parmitano and NASA astronaut Andrew Morgan. Aboard the station, the trio will be a part of Expedition 60 and 61. The mission was first rescheduled from July 10 to July 24, before being advanced to July 6. As of beginning of 2019, the spacecraft was scheduled to remain in orbit for 215 days and return to Earth on Feb. 6, 2020, however by the beginning of February 2019, the landing was advanced to December 18 of the same year. At the beginning of April, the official decision was made to postpone the launch from July 6 to July 20. On May 14, the spacecraft was transported into the vacuum chamber at Site 254 in Baikonur for tests using a mixture of helium and air to ensure the absence of leaks in the ship's pressurized compartments.
Soyuz MS-13 is being transported into vacuum chamber on May 14, 2019.
July 31: A Soyuz-2-1a to launch a Progress MS-12 cargo ship from Baikonur toward the International Space Station, ISS. As of 2014, the launch was scheduled for July 1, 2018. The mission was later re-scheduled for June 5, 2019, and July 31, 2019.
August 22: A Soyuz-2-1a rocket (No. Ya15000-037) to launch the Soyuz MS-14 (Production No. 743; ISS mission 60S) transport spacecraft without crew from Baikonur toward the International Space Station, ISS, to ceritfy the Soyuz 2-1a rocket for missions with humans onboard. Following the two-day trip to the station, Soyuz MS-14 will dock at the MIM-2 Poisk module, a part of the Russian Segment, where the spacecraft will remain until September 3, when its Descent Module will return to Earth after a 12-day flight.
The Soyuz MS-14 mission was previously scheduled for liftoff on August 23 and Sept. 4, 2019. It was later planned for Sept. 12, 2019, but around January of that year, it was set for August 22. That launch date was re-confirmed by the official ISS flight manifest approved by Roskosmos on Feb. 25, 2019.
The preparations for the launch began in Baikonur on May 15, with the unloading of the booster stages of the Soyuz-2-1a rocket inside the vehicle assembly building at Site 31.
Booster stages of the Soyuz-2-1a rocket for the Soyuz MS-14 rocket are being unloaded from railway containers at Site 31 in Baikonur on May 15, 2019.
Summer: A Proton-M/Briz-M rocket to launch from Baikonur with a pair of satellites built by Orbital ATK: Eutelsat-5 West-B and the first Mission Extension Vehicle, MEV-1. The Eutelsat-5 West B satellite is based on Orbital ATK's GEOstar platform and carries communications payload developed at Airbus Defense and Space. During its ride to orbit on the Proton, Eutelsat-5 West-B will be stacked on top of the MEV-1 satellite. The two-launch agreement between Eutelsat and the International Launch Services, ILS, which markets Proton rockets to comercial customers, was announced on October 12, 2016. The deal also included the first order for the yet-to-be developed Proton-Medium rocket to carry an unidentified payload for Eutelsat in 2019 or 2020. The agreements for both launches were pre-arranged in a preliminary deal between ILS and Eutelsat, first announced in October of 2015. By July 2018, the mission had to be postponed from the the fourth quarter of 2018 to March 2019, until after the launch of Yamal-601 satellite, due to delays with the delivery of Eutelsat and MEV satellites. At the end of 2018, delays with the tests of the payload adapter required to postpone the mission until the second quarter of 2019.
The crew will include a yet-to-be-assigned Russian cosmonaut Oleg Skripochka, a US astronaut Jessica Meir and a commercial passenger from the United Arab Emirates, UAE, Hazzaa Ali Almansoori.
As of the end of February 2019, Roskosmos was yet to get a final agreement with NASA about the potential use of one seat on the Soyuz MS-15 for a paid passenger. At the same time, Roskosmos needed to get NASA to agree to extend the mission of another US astronaut aboard the ISS to as long as one year, in order to free the return seat for a tourist on the Soyuz MS-12 spacecraft, which was scheduled for landing on Oct. 3, 2019.
According to an earlier plan, the commercial passenger from UAE would launch on April 5, 2019, aboard the Soyuz MS-12 spacecraft and, after a 10-day flight, hitchhike back to Earth the returning Soyuz MS-10 on April 15, 2019. However, the latter vehicle, which carried only two crew members, never made it to orbit due to a launch vehicle failure. In the meantime, two candidates from UAE began training at Star City in September 2018.
After the Soyuz MS-10 accident on Oct. 11, 2018, NASA re-confirmed its plans to add its second astronaut to the Soyuz MS-12 crew and thus leaving no free seats aboard the three-seat vehicle. As a result, the only other way to provide an extra seat for the returning space tourist would be bumping the return of one of the professional astronauts to another mission.
Moreover, according to the original schedule, the launch of Soyuz MS-15 was planned for Oct. 18, 2019, or after the planned departure of Soyuz MS-12 on October 3 after 203 days in space.
In order to overlap the two missions at the ISS, by the beginning of 2019, Roskosmos evaluated advancing the planned launch of Soyuz MS-15 to September 23 and, later, to September 25.
The September 25 launch date was formally confirmed in the official ISS flight manifest, which was approved by Roskosmos on Feb. 25, 2019. According to that document, Soyuz MS-15 was expected to remain in orbit for 187 days, implying the return to Earth on March 29, 2020. As an unintended consequence of three transport vehicles docked at the station simultaneously for eight days, the station's crew will reach nine people from Sept. 29 until October 3.
Fourth quarter: Russia to launch the Ekspress-80 and Ekspress-103 communications satellites. The joint launch of two satellitew was originally promised in 2018, but as of 2016, the mission slipped to the fourth quarter of 2019. On Jan. 31, 2018, Roskosmos announced that the payload structure module for Ekspress-80 arrived to Rome from ISS Reshetnev and was undergoing acceptance checks at Thales Alenia Space Italy by a team of engineers including specialists from Reshetnev.
December 20: A Soyuz-2-1a rocket to launch a Progress MS-13 cargo ship from Baikonur toward the International Space Station, ISS. (As of 2014, the launch was planned for Oct. 16, 2018. The launch was later planned for December 2.)
Delayed from May: A Rockot to launch a trio of Gonets-M communications satellites, a pair of Blits-M experimental satellites and the Radio-2017 experimental satellite from Plesetsk. The primary payload was originally planned for launch as early as 2016 and, in case of unavailability of the Rokot, could fly on the Soyuz-2-1v rocket. The mission was later postponed from the Fall of 2016, the third quarter of 2017 and October 2018
When first announced in 2006, the Lybid spacecraft was expected to fly in 2010, but it was later postponed until September 2011. In April 2010, the launch was promised in April 2012. However, according to the Yuzmash production plant in Dnipro, Ukraine, it received an order for the Zenit rocket to launch Lybid in 2011. In the meantime, the mission was delayed until the fourth quarter of 2013. In August 2014, Ukrainian space agency said that the spacecraft would be ready for launch in the fourth quarter of that year, however political problems between Russia and Ukraine kept the spacecraft on the ground.
Only in March 2017, there were first signs that the Lybid program might have a chance to get off the ground. In an interview with the Interfax-Ukraine news agency, Acting Head of Ukrainian Space Agency, GKAU, Yuri Radchenko said that before the end of that month, the Yuzhmash factory in Dnepr, Ukraine, was expected to pay Moscow-based NPO Energomash for the RD-171 engine to be installed on the fully assembled first stage of the Zenit rocket slated to launch Lybid. At the same time, industry sources said that personnel at Yuzhmash had began testing a fully assembled second stage of the Zenit for the Lybid mission.
As of September 2017, the launch of the Lybid satellite was postponed from the end of the year to the first quarter of 2018. Within a month, the launch date was narrowed down to the Jan. 1-10, 2018, period. However on Jan. 11, 2018, Yuzmash announced that it had been waiting for $8.245 million to complete the manufacturing of the Zenit rocket for the mission, which was now officially under an order from the TsENKI launch infrastructure center, a division of the Roskosmos State Corporation. By taking the formal ownership of the launcher, TsENKI, likely provided a political cover for the Lybid launch, necessary under the conditions of mutual sanctions between Moscow and Kiev. As of February 2018, it was unclear whether the satellite could be launched before the end of the year.
2019: A Soyuz rocket with a Fregat upper stage to launch the second pair of a quartet of satellites to study plasma within the Roy ("Swarm") project from Plesetsk. Each 200-kilogram spacecraft would be based on the Karat platform with plasma-electric engines and carry around 60 kilograms of payload. The scientific payload would be based on the Strannik experiment. (612). Each spacecraft would carry a single magnitometer boom and four booms for measurement of the magnetic field.
2019: Russia to launch the Okean No. 1 ocean-monitoring satellite. (As of 2010-2012)
2019: An Angara rocket to fly its first mission from a newly completed launch pad in Vostochny Cosmodrome, possibly with an unmanned prototype of the PTK NP spacecraft. (A statement by the head of TsNIIMash research institute Gennady Raikunov on December 3, 2012, promised the first launch of PTK NP on Angara in 2018.)
Uncertain launch dates
Postponed from June 2018: A Rockot/Briz-KM booster to launch the Geo-IK-2 No. 13L geodesic satellite for the Russian Ministry of Defense from Pad 3 at Site 133 in Plesetsk. (As of 2016, the mission was promised in 2017. Then planned between June and December 2018.)
Delayed from 2018: A Proton-M/Block DM-03 rocket to launch a trio of GLONASS-M navigation satellites (No. 56, 57, 58) from Baikonur. (Postponed from 2014, beginning of 2015, May 2015 and 1st quarter of 2017.)
After 2017: Soyuz rockets to launch SAR-Lupe-2 observation satellites. (As of September 2012)
End of 2018: Soyuz-2-1b rocket to launch an eight-ton OKA-T-MKS No. 1 (52KS) free-flyer module from Vostochny to be serviced from ISS during its five-year mission. The spacecraft would be used for research in the field of nanoelectronics, alloys, composite materials and biotechnology. (459) The launch was originally planned for 2015, however by fall 2011, it had to be postponed to 2017-2018, due to lack of potential customers. (521) In April 2013, the launch was promised at the end of 2018. (634)
Postponed from 2017:
2017: Russia to launch the Kartograf-OE No. 1 remote-sensing satellite. (Before 2012, the launch was expected as early as 2014).
Postponed from 2015:
End of 2015 - end of 2016: A Soyuz or Vega rocket to launch the 200-kilogram Taranis satellite into a quasi-sun-synchronous orbit with an altitude of 700 kilometers. Developed by the French space agency, CNES, the Taranis satellite (Tool for the Analysis of RAdiation from lightNIng and Sprites) will be a secondary payload during a mission to deliver multiple spacecraft. The satellite will study magnetosphere-ionosphere-atmosphere coupling via transient processes, focusing in particular on two aspects: determining the characteristics and frequency of transient luminous events (TLE) involved in the coupling between the ionosphere and atmosphere, and characterizing the electron beams accelerated from the atmosphere to the magnetosphere. The contract for the mission between Toulouse Space Center and Arianespace was announced on July 9, 2012. The agreement also included options for the launch of two other CNES satellites, Microscope and Merlin.
Postponed from 2015: Soyuz rocket to launch the Foton-M No. 5 spacecraft. The spacecraft is expected to be equipped with solar panels, modified service module, and the new liquid-propellant orbit correction engine. The orbital life span of the satellite to be launched into the 400-450-kilometer orbit was expected to increase to 60 days. (As of April 2009)
Postponed from around 2015: Russia to launch Kosmos-SKh satellite to monitor agricultural development from space.
Postponed from 2015: Russia to launch the Kartograf-OE No. 2 remote-sensing satellite.
Postponed from 2016:
2016: Soyuz-2-1b/Fregat-SB rocket to launch the Arkon-2M No. 2 remote-sensing satellites for all-weather radar observations of the Earth surface from a 550-600-kilometer Sun-synchronous orbit. In 2010, a pair of spacecraft was scheduled for launch in 2013, however by 2012, the first Arkon-2M was expected to fly in 2015 and the second in 2016. The Arkon-2M program was canceled by November 2012.
Canceled Russian missions
Aug. 5: A Dnepr rocket to launch a pair of GRACE-FO scientific satellites for the European Space Agency, ESA, from a silo facility 370/13 in Dombarovsky. The mission was switched to a Falcon-9 rocket.
2017: Russia to launch Arkon-2 No. 1 radar remote-sensing satellite. As of 2008, the first launch of Arkon-2 was promised in 2011 (299), however during 2010-2012 period, the mission was expected in 2017.
2017: The Baiterek launch complex in Baikonur to host its first mission of the Angara rocket. (As of end of 2010. As of 2008, the first Angara mission from Baikonur was promised in 2012; by 2009, it slipped to 2014 and by 2011 to 2017. The program was canceled in 2012).
2017-2018: A Soyuz rocket with a Fregat upper stage to launch the first pair of a quartet of satellites from Plesetsk to study plasma within the Roy ("Swarm") project. Each 200-kilogram spacecraft would be based on the Karat platform with plasma-electric engines and carry around 60 kilograms of payload. Each spacecraft would carry a single magnetometer boom and four booms for measurement of Earth's electric field.
2017: Russia to launch Smotr-R No. 1 remote-sensing satellite.