An artist rendering of the Node Module (right). Click to enlarge. Copyright © 2015 Anatoly Zak
A scale model of Luna-Glob lander presented at the Paris Air and Space Show in Le Bourget in June 2013. Copyright © 2013 Claude Mourier
Russian space activities in 2019
At the beginning of the year, the official Russian media promised 45 launches of rockets and missiles built by the Russian industry within the Roskosmos State Corporation in 2019. They included 32 orbital launch attempts with spacecraft. However, these numbers did not included test firings of submarine-based missiles. Around five or six military orbital launches were promised from Plesetsk and as many as 19 from Baikonur. In November 2018, the Russian emergency agency, MChS, also promised launches of six remote-sensing satellites, inclduing radar-carrying spacecraft before the end of 2019. The Ministry of Defense also promised during 2019 to deploy 31 Yars and Avangard launchers, four Tu-95 cruise-missile-carrying aircraft and Knyaz Vladimir submarine with Bulava missiles.
The world's orbital launch attempts in 2019 (as of January 15, 2019 ):
Planned Russian orbital launch attempts:
February 19: A Soyuz-2 (ST-B) rocket to launch a OneWeb Pilot Internet communications satellite from the ELS complex in Kourou, French Guiana. The launch was originally planned for November 2018, but by August of that year, the mission had to be postponed until February 2019, apparently due to delays with the production of the spacecraft. As a result of a domino effect of delays, the first launch of OneWeb satellites from Baikonur was now possible no earlier than the end of summer of beginning of fall 2019 and it was soon postponed to the last quarter of 2019. The first launch of the satellites from Vostochny slipped to 2020. By the middle of December 2018, the launch was postponed from February 7 to February 19, 2019.
February 21: A Soyuz-2-1b rocket to launch an EgyptSat-A satellite from Site 31 in Baikonur. The launch was originally planned for November 22, 2018, but by September of that year, the mission was postponed until Dec. 27, 2018. The launch vehicle for the mission arrived at Baikonur around the middle of October 2018, but the launch was then postponed until Feb. 7 and Feb. 21, 2019.
March 1, 03:42 Moscow Time: A Soyuz-2-1a rocket to launch a Soyuz MS-12 (No. 742) manned transport spacecraft from Baikonur toward the International Space Station, ISS. The crew will include Aleksei Ovchinin, Nick Hague and Christina Hammock-Koch. (The launch was previously planned for March 7 and March 14.) As of beginning of 2019, the spacecraft was expected to remain in orbit for 216 days and return to Earth on Oct. 3, 2019.
April 4: A Soyuz-2-1a rocket to launch the Progress MS-11 cargo ship from Baikonur to the International Space Station, ISS. The spacecraft should follow a two-orbit rendezvous profile. As of 2014, the launch was scheduled for April 16, 2018, and the mission was eventually re-scheduled for Feb. 8, 2019, and March 28, 2019. The assembly of the vehicle was completed in September 2018. After its delivery to Baikonur, the spacecraft was unloaded from its rail container and installed in its test rig for initial checks on Sept. 12, 2018. In the wake of the air leak incident aboard the Soyuz MS-09 spacecraft in orbit in August 2018, Progress MS-11 underwent an additional inspection. The cargo ship was then put in storage until the start of its launch campaign in November 2018. In the fall of 2018, the mission was rescheduled from Feb. 7 to Feb. 8, 2019. The launch vehicle for the mission arrived at Baikonur around the middle of October 2018 and the spacecraft itself was shipped to the launch site in the middle of December 2018. By the beginning of 2019, the launch was delayed from March 28 to April 4.
April: A Soyuz-2-1a rocket to launch Meteor-M No. 2-2 meteorological satellite (postponed from October). The Soyuz-2-1b rocket for the mission arrived at Vostochny on June 18, 2018, and its launch was originally planned for Dec. 6, 2018, and the first quarter of 2019. By October 2018, the mission was postponed until April 2019, at the earliest.
End of April: A Proton-M/Block-DM-03 rocket to launch the Spektr-RG X-ray observatory. (As of April-June 2014, the launch was postponed from March 26, 2016, to 2017. By the end of 2015, the launch was planned for Sept. 25, 2017.).
Middle of May or later: A Proton-M/Briz-M rocket to launch from Baikonur with a pair of satellites built by Orbital ATK: Eutelsat-5 West-B and the first Mission Extension Vehicle, MEV-1. The Eutelsat-5 West B satellite is based on Orbital ATK's GEOstar platform and carries communications payload developed at Airbus Defense and Space. During its ride to orbit on the Proton, Eutelsat-5 West-B will be stacked on top of the MEV-1 satellite. The two-launch agreement between Eutelsat and the International Launch Services, ILS, which markets Proton rockets to comercial customers, was announced on October 12, 2016. The deal also included the first order for the yet-to-be developed Proton-Medium rocket to carry an unidentified payload for Eutelsat in 2019 or 2020. The agreements for both launches were pre-arranged in a preliminary deal between ILS and Eutelsat, first announced in October of 2015. By July 2018, the mission had to be postponed from the the fourth quarter of 2018 to March 2019, until after the launch of Yamal-601 satellite, due to delays with the delivery of Eutelsat and MEV satellites. At the end of 2018, delays with the tests of the payload adapter required to postpone the mission until the second quarter of 2019.
May-June: A Proton-M rocket to launch the Blagovest No. 14L communications satellite for the Russian Ministry of Defense. (As of August 2018, the launch was expected in the first quarter of 2019, but by the end of 2018, the mission slipped to May or June 2019).
June-July: A Proton-M rocket to launch the Yamal-601 satellite for Gazprom Space Systems, a division of the largest Russian oil and natural gas producer. According to original deal struck in 2014, the Yamal-601 satellite, weighing over 5,700 kilograms, was to be built by Thales Alenia Space on the flight proven Spacebus-4000 platform. The mission marked the second Russian company switching from domestic communications satellite developers to foreign suppliers. Previously, Russian Satellite Communications Company, RSCC, also gave contracts to non-Russian satellite producers.
However after the events in Crimea later that year, the contract was re-written to base the project on the platform developed at ISS Reshetnev in Russia, while leaving the communications payload to be supplied by Thales.
The satellite will be launched into geostationary transfer orbit and has an anticipated service lifetime of 15 years. Yamal-601 satellite will replace Yamal-202 and will provide fixed communications and transmission services in C-band over Europe, the Middle East, Northern Africa and South-East Asia from the orbital position at 49 degrees East longitude. This satellite is also designed for development of business in Ku- and Ka-bands in the Russian market.
The International Launch Services, ILS, a US-based company that markets the Proton rocket to commercial customers, announced the contract for the launch of Yamal-601 on Jan. 22, 2014, promising the launch in February 2016.
In July 2016, Moscow-based Sberbank provided Gazprom with five lines of credit totaling 22 billion rubles for the development of the Yamal-601 satellite, its ground infrastructure, its launch and insurance.
By April 2017, the mission slipped to the end of 2018. The launch date was confirmed in September 2017.
On April 6, 2018, RIA Novosti quoted head of Gazprom KS Nikolai Sevastyanov promising the launch in January 2019. By July 2018, the launch was re-scheduled for February 2019, but before the end of the year, the launch had to be postponed until April or May 2019.
July 6: A Soyuz-2-1a rocket to launch a Soyuz MS-13 (No. 743) manned transport spacecraft with a crew of three from Baikonur toward the International Space Station, ISS. The mission was first rescheduled from July 10 to July 24, before being advanced to July 6. As of beginning of 2019, the spacecraft was scheduled to remain in orbit for 215 days and return to Earth on Feb. 6, 2020.
July 31: A Soyuz rocket to launch a Progress MS-12 cargo ship from Baikonur toward the International Space Station, ISS. As of 2014, the launch was scheduled for July 1, 2018. The mission was later re-scheduled for June 5, 2019, and July 31, 2019.
Sept. 12: A Soyuz-2-1a rocket to launch the Soyuz MS-14 (No. 744) transport spacecraft without crew from Baikonur toward the International Space Station, ISS. The mission was postponed from August 23 and Sept. 4, 2019.
Oct. 18: A Soyuz-2-1a rocket to launch the Soyuz MS-15 (No. 745) transport spacecraft without crew from Baikonur toward the International Space Station, ISS. The launch was previously planned for Oct. 18, 2019.
November: A Soyuz-ST rocket to launch a cluster of 34 OneWeb Internet communications satellites from Baikonur.
Fourth quarter: Russia to launch the Ekspress-80 and Ekspress-103 communications satellites. The joint launch of two satellitew was originally promised in 2018, but as of 2016, the mission slipped to the fourth quarter of 2019. On Jan. 31, 2018, Roskosmos announced that the payload structure module for Ekspress-80 arrived to Rome from ISS Reshetnev and was undergoing acceptance checks at Thales Alenia Space Italy by a team of engineers including specialists from Reshetnev.
When first announced in 2006, the Lybid spacecraft was expected to fly in 2010, but it was later postponed until September 2011. In April 2010, the launch was promised in April 2012. However, according to the Yuzmash production plant in Dnipro, Ukraine, it received an order for the Zenit rocket to launch Lybid in 2011. In the meantime, the mission was delayed until the fourth quarter of 2013. In August 2014, Ukrainian space agency said that the spacecraft would be ready for launch in the fourth quarter of that year, however political problems between Russia and Ukraine kept the spacecraft on the ground.
Only in March 2017, there were first signs that the Lybid program might have a chance to get off the ground. In an interview with the Interfax-Ukraine news agency, Acting Head of Ukrainian Space Agency, GKAU, Yuri Radchenko said that before the end of that month, the Yuzhmash factory in Dnepr, Ukraine, was expected to pay Moscow-based NPO Energomash for the RD-171 engine to be installed on the fully assembled first stage of the Zenit rocket slated to launch Lybid. At the same time, industry sources said that personnel at Yuzhmash had began testing a fully assembled second stage of the Zenit for the Lybid mission.
As of September 2017, the launch of the Lybid satellite was postponed from the end of the year to the first quarter of 2018. Within a month, the launch date was narrowed down to the Jan. 1-10, 2018, period. However on Jan. 11, 2018, Yuzmash announced that it had been waiting for $8.245 million to complete the manufacturing of the Zenit rocket for the mission, which was now officially under an order from the TsENKI launch infrastructure center, a division of the Roskosmos State Corporation. By taking the formal ownership of the launcher, TsENKI, likely provided a political cover for the Lybid launch, necessary under the conditions of mutual sanctions between Moscow and Kiev. As of February 2018, it was unclear whether the satellite could be launched before the end of the year.
2019: A Soyuz rocket to launch Resurs-P No. 5 satellite. (As of beginning of 2018).
2019: A Soyuz rocket with a Fregat upper stage to launch the second pair of a quartet of satellites to study plasma within the Roy ("Swarm") project from Plesetsk. Each 200-kilogram spacecraft would be based on the Karat platform with plasma-electric engines and carry around 60 kilograms of payload. The scientific payload would be based on the Strannik experiment. (612). Each spacecraft would carry a single magnitometer boom and four booms for measurement of the magnetic field.
2019: Russia to launch the Okean No. 1 ocean-monitoring satellite. (As of 2010-2012)
2019: Russia to complete the orbital deployment of the Obzor-O four-satellite remote-sensing constellation. (As of October 2012)
2019: An Angara rocket to fly its first mission from a newly completed launch pad in Vostochny Cosmodrome, possibly with an unmanned prototype of the PTK NP spacecraft. (A statement by the head of TsNIIMash research institute Gennady Raikunov on December 3, 2012, promised the first launch of PTK NP on Angara in 2018.)
Uncertain launch dates
Postponed from June 2018: A Rockot/Briz-KM booster to launch the Geo-IK-2 No. 13L geodesic satellite for the Russian Ministry of Defense from Pad 3 at Site 133 in Plesetsk. (As of 2016, the mission was promised in 2017. Then planned between June and December 2018.)
Delayed from October 2018 (?): A Rockot to launch a trio of Gonets-M communications satellites, a pair of Blits-M experimental satellites and the Radio-2017 experimental satellite from Plesetsk. The primary payload was originally planned for launch as early as 2016 and, in case of unavailability of the Roskot, could fly on the Soyuz-2-1v rocket. (The mission postponed from the fall of 2016 and the third quarter of 2017).
Delayed from 2018: A Soyuz rocket to launch Resurs-P No. 4 satellite.
Delayed from 2018: A Proton-M/Block DM-03 rocket to launch a trio of GLONASS-M navigation satellites (No. 56, 57, 58) from Baikonur. (Postponed from 2014, beginning of 2015, May 2015 and 1st quarter of 2017.)
After 2017: Soyuz rockets to launch SAR-Lupe-2 observation satellites. (As of September 2012)
End of 2018: Soyuz-2-1b rocket to launch an eight-ton OKA-T-MKS No. 1 (52KS) free-flyer module from Vostochny to be serviced from ISS during its five-year mission. The spacecraft would be used for research in the field of nanoelectronics, alloys, composite materials and biotechnology. (459) The launch was originally planned for 2015, however by fall 2011, it had to be postponed to 2017-2018, due to lack of potential customers. (521) In April 2013, the launch was promised at the end of 2018. (634)
Delayed from beginning of 2018: Russia to launch Kanopus-VM No. 1 satellite.
Postponed from 2017:
2017: Russia to launch the Kartograf-OE No. 1 remote-sensing satellite. (Before 2012, the launch was expected as early as 2014).
Postponed from 2015:
End of 2015 - end of 2016: A Soyuz or Vega rocket to launch the 200-kilogram Taranis satellite into a quasi-sun-synchronous orbit with an altitude of 700 kilometers. Developed by the French space agency, CNES, the Taranis satellite (Tool for the Analysis of RAdiation from lightNIng and Sprites) will be a secondary payload during a mission to deliver multiple spacecraft. The satellite will study magnetosphere-ionosphere-atmosphere coupling via transient processes, focusing in particular on two aspects: determining the characteristics and frequency of transient luminous events (TLE) involved in the coupling between the ionosphere and atmosphere, and characterizing the electron beams accelerated from the atmosphere to the magnetosphere. The contract for the mission between Toulouse Space Center and Arianespace was announced on July 9, 2012. The agreement also included options for the launch of two other CNES satellites, Microscope and Merlin.
Postponed from December 2015: A Soyuz-2-1b/Fregat rocket to launch the Meteor-M remote-sensing satellite, along with a cluster of secondary payloads, including Flying Laptop, Flock 2, Scout, AISSat-3, Perseus-O1, Perseus-O2.
Postponed from 2015: Soyuz rocket to launch the Foton-M No. 5 spacecraft. The spacecraft is expected to be equipped with solar panels, modified service module, and the new liquid-propellant orbit correction engine. The orbital life span of the satellite to be launched into the 400-450-kilometer orbit was expected to increase to 60 days. (As of April 2009)
Postponed from around 2015: Russia to launch Kosmos-SKh satellite to monitor agricultural development from space.
Postponed from 2015: Russia to launch the Kartograf-OE No. 2 remote-sensing satellite.
Postponed from 2016:
2016: Soyuz-2-1b/Fregat-SB rocket to launch the Arkon-2M No. 2 remote-sensing satellites for all-weather radar observations of the Earth surface from a 550-600-kilometer Sun-synchronous orbit. In 2010, a pair of spacecraft was scheduled for launch in 2013, however by 2012, the first Arkon-2M was expected to fly in 2015 and the second in 2016. The Arkon-2M program was canceled by November 2012.
Canceled Russian missions
Aug. 5: A Dnepr rocket to launch a pair of GRACE-FO scientific satellites for the European Space Agency, ESA, from a silo facility 370/13 in Dombarovsky. The mission was switched to a Falcon-9 rocket.
2017: Russia to launch Arkon-2 No. 1 radar remote-sensing satellite. As of 2008, the first launch of Arkon-2 was promised in 2011 (299), however during 2010-2012 period, the mission was expected in 2017.
2017: The Baiterek launch complex in Baikonur to host its first mission of the Angara rocket. (As of end of 2010. As of 2008, the first Angara mission from Baikonur was promised in 2012; by 2009, it slipped to 2014 and by 2011 to 2017. The program was canceled in 2012).
2017-2018: A Soyuz rocket with a Fregat upper stage to launch the first pair of a quartet of satellites from Plesetsk to study plasma within the Roy ("Swarm") project. Each 200-kilogram spacecraft would be based on the Karat platform with plasma-electric engines and carry around 60 kilograms of payload. Each spacecraft would carry a single magnetometer boom and four booms for measurement of Earth's electric field.
2017: A Dnepr rocket with a Krechet upper stage to launch Ukrainian Selena mini-orbiter toward the Moon. Developed by KB Yuzhnoe, Selena would be the first spacecraft in post-Soviet Ukraine designed to go beyond the Earth orbit. (Plans as of November 2011.) Ukrainian plans for developing a lunar station had been publicized during the crisis with the Russian Phobos-Grunt spacecraft and, possibly, were timed to facilitate contacts with Russia on a potential cooperative project in deep space. Ukraine's previous plans to launch a 300-kilogram lunar orbiter on the Zenit rocket stalled due to lack of funds. However, by scaling down the project to fit into a converted ballistic missile and, possibly, joining forces with Russia, could make the proposal affordable. It could be speculated, that after the Phobos-Grunt fiasco, Russian space strategists could be under pressure to fly an inexpensive test mission into deep-space before returning to ambitious and expensive planetary missions.
2017: Russia to launch Smotr-R No. 1 remote-sensing satellite.